Radiographic testing (RT)
Radiographic testing (RT),refers to the use of X-ray or gamma-ray penetrating specimens,film as the recording of information equipment nondestructive testing methods,this method is the most basic,the most widely used non-destructive test method.RT is often used to inspect weld of piping products,like steel pipes,elbows,tees and flanges etc.The obvious advantage of radiographic testing methods of testing is that it can help establish the weld’s internal integrity without destroying the welded component.
Ultrasonic testing (UT)
In Ultrasonic testing (UT) , a transducer introduces ultrasonic waves into a material, which travel in a straight line and at a constant speed until they encounter a surface. This causes some of the wave energy to be reflected, while the rest is transmitted. Analyzing the amount of reflected energy vs. transmitted energy provides information on the size and location of the discontinuity encountered. It helps in flaw detection (cracks, inclusions, porosity, delamination etc.)
Magnetic Particle (MT)
Magnetic Particle (MT) is a quick, cost-effective NDT inspection method to detect suface and near-surface discontinuiities, available in the field or in the lab. In MT, technicians magnetize a ferromagnetic material and apply finely-milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment to it. The particles indicate a discontinuity in the material by clustering directly over it, which can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.
Penetrant Testing (PT)
“A traditional, relatively simply method of field or lab non-destructive testing, Penetrant Testing (PT) is used for finding surface-breaking discontinuities on relatively smooth, nonporous surfaces. It is based on the properties of capillary action, or the phenomenon of a liquid rising or climbing when confined to a small opening. After the excess penetrant is removed and a developer is applied, a trained inspector can identify any remaining penetrant that may indicate a flaw.
Also referred to as Liquid Penetrant Inspection (LPT), Penetrant Testing (PT) is used on non-ferrous materials such as metals, composites, and ceramics, identifying surface anomalies such as cracks, seams, laminations, blow holes, laps, external bursts and welding defects.”
PMI (POSSITIVE MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION)
“Positive Material Identification (PMI) is one of the more specialised non destructive testing methods. With positive material identification the alloy composition of materials can be determined.
If a material certificate is missing or it is not clear what the composition of a material is, then PMI offers the solution. Because specifications for materials used in industry are increasingly more specific, the need for PMI testing has been on an increase for the past several years. Periodic plant maintenance shutdowns are less frequent and consequently the materials used in the plant are in use longer. A wider variety of alloys that are indistinguishable to the eye are being used in process plants. When facility and inspection staff replace components, they must be able to guarantee that the new part matches required specifications.”
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